Git Cheat Sheet

By Khoironi Kurnia Syah on July 21, 2021

Git Cheat Sheet

Git is an acronym for Global Information Tracker. Git is a software for tracking changes in any set of files, usually used for coordinating work among programmers collaboratively developing source code during software development. Its goals include speed, data integrity, and support for distributed, non-linear workflows.

GIT BASICS


Create empty Git repo in specified directory. Run with no arguments to initialize the current directory as a git repository

git init <directory>

Clone repo located at <repo> onto local machine. Original repo can be located on the local filesystem or on a remote machine via HTTP or SSH.

git clone <repo>

Define author name or email to be used for all commits in current repo. Devs commonly use --global flag to set config options for current user.

git config user.name <name>
git config user.email <email>

Commit the staged snapshot, but instead of launching a text editor, use <message> as the commit message.

git add <directory>

List which files are staged, unstaged, and untracked.

git status

Display the entire commit history using the default format. For customization see additional options.

git log

Show unstaged changes between your index and working directory.

git diff

UNDOING CHANGES


Create new commit that undoes all of the changes made in <commit>, then apply it to the current branch.

git revert <commit>

Remove <file> from the staging area, but leave the working directory unchanged. This unstages a file without overwriting any changes.

git reset <file>

Shows which files would be removed from working directory. Use the -f flag in place of the -n flag to execute the clean.

git clean -n

REWRITING GIT HISTORY


Replace the last commit with the staged changes and last commit combined. Use with nothing staged to edit the last commit’s message.

git commit --amend

Rebase the current branch onto <base>. <base> can be a commit ID, branch name, a tag, or a relative reference to HEAD.

git rebase <base>

Show a log of changes to the local repository’s HEAD. Add --relative-date flag to show date info or --all to show all refs.

git reflog

GIT BRANCHES


List all of the branches in your repo. Add a <branch> argument to create a new branch with the name <branch>.

git branch

Create and check out a new branch named <branch>. Drop the -b flag to checkout an existing branch.

git checkout -b <branch>

Merge <branch> into the current branch.

git merge <branch>

REMOTE REPOSITORIES


Create a new connection to a remote repo. After adding a remote, you can use <name> as a shortcut for <url> in other commands.

git remote add <name> <url>

Fetches a specific <branch>, from the repo. Leave off <branch> to fetch all remote refs.

git fetch <remote> <branch>

Fetch the specified remote’s copy of current branch and immediately merge it into the local copy.

git pull <remote>

Push the branch to <remote>, along with necessary commits and objects. Creates named branch in the remote repo if it doesn’t exist.

git push <remote> <branch>

Additional Options+

GIT CONFIG


Define the author name to be used for all commits by the current user.

git config --global user.name <name>

Define the author email to be used for all commits by the current user.

git config --global user.email <email>

Create shortcut for a Git command. E.g. alias.glog “log --graph --oneline” will set ”git glog” equivalent to ”git log --graph --oneline.

git config --global alias. <alias-name> <git-command>

Set text editor used by commands for all users on the machine. <editor> arg should be the command that launches the desired editor (e.g., vi).

git config --system core.editor <editor>

Open the global configuration file in a text editor for manual editing.

git config --global --edit

GIT LOG


Limit number of commits by <limit>. E.g. ”git log -5” will limit to 5 commits.

git log -<limit>

Condense each commit to a single line.

git log --oneline

Display the full diff of each commit. --graph --oneline.

git log -p

Include which files were altered and the relative number of lines that were added or deleted from each of them.

git log --stat

Search for commits by a particular author.

git log --author=”<pattern>”

Search for commits with a commit message that matches <pattern>.

git log --grep=”<pattern>”

Show commits that occur between <since> and <until>. Args can be a commit ID, branch name, HEAD, or any other kind of revision reference.

git log <since>..<until>

Only display commits that have the specified file.

git log --follow <file>

--graph flag draws a text based graph of commits on left side of commit msgs. --decorate adds names of branches or tags of commits shown.

git log --graph --decorate

GIT DIFF


Show difference between working directory and last commit.

git diff HEAD

Show difference between staged changes and last commit.

git diff --cached

GIT RESET


Reset staging area to match most recent commit, but leave the working directory unchanged.

git reset

Reset staging area and working directory to match most recent commit and overwrites all changes in the working directory.

git reset --hard

Move the current branch tip backward to <commit>, reset the staging area to match, but leave the working directory alone.

git reset <commit>

Same as previous, but resets both the staging area & working directory to match. Deletes uncommitted changes, and all commits after <commit>.

git reset --hard <commit>

GIT REBASE


Interactively rebase current branch onto <base>. Launches editor to enter commands for how each commit will be transferred to the new base.

git rebase -i <base>

GIT PULL


Fetch the remote’s copy of current branch and rebases it into the local copy. Uses git rebase instead of merge to integrate the branches.

git pull --rebase <remote>

GIT PUSH


Forces the git push even if it results in a non-fast-forward merge. Do not use the --force flag unless you’re absolutely sure you know what you’re doing.

git push <remote> --force

Push all of your local branches to the specified remote.

git push <remote> --all

Tags aren’t automatically pushed when you push a branch or use the --all flag. The --tags flag sends all of your local tags to the remote repo.

git push <remote> --tags